Trip Report: Southern Nepal, March 1-23, 1999

Laura Gooch, Cleveland, Ohio, USA;

I spent three weeks photographing birds in the lowlands of southern Nepal between March 1 and March 23. Areas birded included Pulchowki/Godawari (near Kathmandu), Koshi Tappu Wildlife Preserve (southeast Nepal), Royal Chitwan National Park (south central Nepal), and Royal Bardia National Park (southwestern Nepal). It was a great trip, with an incredible number of life birds for me, since I've never birded outside of North and Central America before. The people helping me out (Paramount Nepal Tours (my travel agent), the guides in the natural areas, the hotel staff, etc.) were all extremely nice. Guides in the natural areas were generally very knowledgeable and were quite patient with catering to the needs of a bird photographer, something that was somewhat novel to most of them. The country itself is fascinating; when you are not birding and not in one of the protected natural areas the activities of daily life surround you continuously.

Because I was concentrating on photography (rather than on simply birding), I did not see as many species as a "pure" birder would have. Nonetheless, I saw a total of approximately 211 species. The following trip report is a summary of my trip. I've tried to hit the highlights, rather than giving all details of all days of birding. My species list for the full trip, with an indication of where each species was seen is at the end of the text.

I spent my time in Nepal mostly in the southern part of the country in the lowland areas (called the Terai) near the Indian border. This part of the country was a sparsely populated malarial swamp prior to the 1950s, when the Nepali government began a successful campaign to eradicate malaria. Once malaria was controlled, the expanding population of Nepal's hills, as well as people from the neighboring areas of India, began to move into the Terai. At this point, the area is heavily agricultural and almost completely populated. The three areas I visited in the Terai (Koshi Tappu, Royal Chitwan, and Royal Bardia) are three of the four protected areas in the Terai, and they represent most of what remains in Nepal of continuously shrinking wetland, flood plain, and riverine forest habitats. All of the areas have restricted entry and entry fees. It is necessary to have a guide with you while you are inside the preserves. Aside from the legal requirement for a guide, all of the areas have potentially dangerous animals (wild water buffalo at Koshi Tappu and tiger, sloth bear and rhino and Chitwan and Bardia) so that it is wise to have an experienced guide nearby.

Anyone with specific questions about my trip arrangements is welcome to contact me.

Kathmandu (March 2, 9, 10, 15, 16)

I was in Kathmandu at the beginning of my trip and went back between other destinations, since I traveled by air, and all flights originate there. I did not bird much in Kathmandu itself, concentrating more on the life of the city. However, my hotel (the Nirvana Garden in Thamel) had a very nice garden away from the street where there were Oriental Magpie Robin, House Sparrows, House Crows, and some tricky small birds I never could get a good look at. In addition, Black(-eared) Kites in large numbers mingle with the House Crows along the rivers, where they all scavenge in the amazingly filthy water.

Koshi Tappu Wildlife Preserve (March 3-9)

Koshi Tappu Wildlife Preserve is a 170 square kilometer area in the southeastern part of Nepal along the Koshi River. The preserve is primarily made up of the river and the flood plain between the river levees. There are a number of ponds in the floodplain inside the levees, as well as a fairly extensive area of wetlands along the outside of the levee system. The preserve was set up to protect the only remaining population of wild water buffalo in Nepal; however, the wetland area that was protected has been designated as a RAMSAR site (a wetland of international importance) by IUCN in 1987. As the human population of Nepal's wetlands increases, the wetlands at Koshi Tappu are increasingly isolated and unique, and they provide a very important habitat for migration stops and breeding for wetland-dependant bird species.

I stayed at Aqua Birds Unlimited Camp, a tented camp about 100 yards outside of the east side of the preserve, very near the park headquarters. The camp is set up with safari tents with two cots (basically single beds) in each tent. There is electricity and hot and cold running water. Showers and toilets are in a separate building. All meals are provided in a common dining hall. Unlike the other places I stayed in Nepal (and unlike most of the other tourist facilities in natural areas), Aqua Birds is specifically set up for birders. The location was chosen for its birding potential, and the guides are extremely knowledgeable about the bird species. I spent most of my time with Rajendra Suwal, the Director of Operations, and Dinesh Giri, one of the guides. Both are passionate birders. Rabindra Shrestha, who is also co-owner of a book shop in Kathmandu, also helped for part of the time and is very knowledgeable as well. Guides and guests gathered at meal times to compare notes for the day, and activities were tailored to the interests of each party of guests. My fellow guests were all birders of varying experience levels.

The camp is surrounded by wetlands and rice paddies, with a medium-sized pond just outside. A blind near the dining hall provides a good view of the pond, which had a constantly changing population of migratory ducks while I was there. The marsh areas just around the camp have a pretty wide variety of marsh birds, including snipe, wagtail, drongo, stork, ibis, Striated Grassbird, myna, and four species of kingfisher, among others.

I spent considerable time while I was there photographing ducks, Common Moorhen, Purple Moorhen, Little Grebe, Kingfisher (Pied, White-breasted, Stork-billed and Common), Wagtail, Little Ringed Plover, Myna, Pond Heron, drongo, pipit, snipe, and the Striated Grassbird at the camp. It was quite easy to get reasonably close to the marsh birds by standing along the raised paths and watching the action in the wetland. The ducks on the pond were a little more difficult to photograph (distances were a bit long), but they also provided some good opportunities. Duck species included Falcated Teal, Northern Pintail, Red-crested Pochard, and lesser whistling duck.

Most of my time in the preserve itself was spent walking along the levy on the east side of the preserve and on the spur levies perpendicular to it. I also spent quite a lot of time at some of the larger ponds. The levies are planted with a variety of trees, while the remainder of the flood plain is primarily grass land near the levy and sand closer to the river. There are quite a few ponds just inside of the levy, so that there are water-associated birds such as moorhen and kingfisher. Vultures and raptors are plentiful overhead; bulbuls, doves, orioles, tailorbird, leaf warblers, jungle and spotted owlet, and myna populate the trees along the levy; storks, ibis, and heron are found in the ponds and roosting in trees; babblers, bee-eaters, Greater Coucal, Brain-fever Bird, Black Francolin and Swamp Francolin populate the grassland; duck, more heron and ibis, spoonbill, plovers, darters, cormorant and osprey are found along the river. There is a heavier woodland band inside the levy about 5 miles north of the camp where there are reportedly Brown Fish Owl. This proved a difficult one for me... we spent several hours looking on two successive days without finding the owl. Highlights of the preserve for me were a Black-necked Stork, Asian Openbill, Lesser Adjutant, Swamp Francolin, Common Hoopoe, Black-headed Ibis, Green Bee-eaters, Striated Babbler, and an extremely calm Black-shouldered Kite which allowed me to come within 15 or 20 feet and minded so little that I left him sitting on his branch.

Because there are wetland areas outside of the preserve in the midst of the rice paddies there is good birding there as well. Pipits, wagtail, stork, ibis, heron, moorhen and Cinnamon Bittern, hoopoe, ducks, and jacana are there. A Baillon's Crake was seen by some of my fellow birders but proved elusive for me. One evening, as I followed a pair of Common Hoopoe along a berm, I watched women and children harvesting sugar cane off to one side. As the evening waned Bluethroat began hopping on the ground amidst the cane, and Bushchat and bulbul began to bubble out of the top of the remaining cane like popcorn. A boy waded in a nearby pond putting out fishing lines while Bronze-winged Jacana hopped across the pond vegetation.

An excursion from Aqua Birds was a trip down the Kosi River via flat-bottomed skiff. It was a hot day, and the quiet light blue water, hazy sky and white sand made it a peaceful and sleepy float. Osprey, Red-wattled Lapwing, shorebirds, Ruddy Shelduck, Mallard (not so common there), Spoonbill, heron, ibis, Peregrine Falcon, darters and cormorant were all readily observable.

After the boat trip, we drove down to Koshi Barrage. Driving downstream from the barrage itself, we were startled to see about 75 vultures (White-rumped, Indian Griffon, and Eurasion Griffon) standing in a field about 50 feet from the road. We piled out (immediately attracting a crowd of curious children) and saw a dead and flayed cow being dismembered by a pack of dogs. The vultures were waiting their turn. The silent, still crowd of enormous birds quietly waiting their turn is one of the more eerie sights that I've ever seen. The White-rumped Vultures looked rather like solemn barristers in black robes with light fur collars. Back upstream from the dam we went to the "pink tower" that is mentioned in some of the guidebooks, where we watched the reservoir (which looks much like the river) and a large flock of Small Pratincole as the sun set and the Black Francolin called. The pink tower is a good observation spot, but it is decaying, and the lower floors are filled with garbage.

My total species list for Kosi Tappu comes to a relatively unimpressive 122 species, but, because my eye was glued to the viewfinder most of the time, that greatly understates the birding possibilities there. Three very keen Scottish birders who were there at the same time saw over 200 species in three days there, including a trip to Dahran forest, about 1.5 hours away by car. In addition to the birds, I saw mongoose, wild water buffalo, wild boar, hog deer, crocodile, and Gangetic dolphin while I was there.

Pulchowki/Godawari (March 10)

Pulchowki is an undeveloped north-facing mountainside on the southern side of the Kathmandu valley, and Godawari is a royal botanical garden nearby. Because the Kathmandu valley is heavily developed and farmed, there is very little forest area left elsewhere in the valley, and the Pulchowki/Godawari area is one of the few remaining places to see species with a middle elevation (about 1800 meters above sea level) forest species. That being said, I had a very quiet day in the Pulchowki/Godawari area. Local birders I spoke to agreed that the area is extremely variable - sometimes there are lots of birds, sometimes few, and we appeared to hit a day with few. It was quite hot, and it had been unusually dry during the preceding weeks, so the speculation was that the migration was early, and most of the birds had already gone by.

We left from Kathmandu at about 7:30 AM, and arrived at Godawari about 8 AM. The sun takes a while to reach the area, so this timing was about appropriate. We stayed in the botanical garden until about 9:30, where we saw Red-vented Bulbul, Yellow-cheeked Tit, Jungle Crow, Scarlet Minivet, Grey-headed Canary Flycatcher, and House Crow. Frustrated by the quiet, we headed up to Pulchowki. The road up the hill at Pulchowki is partially paved and partially unpaved, and it takes four-wheel drive to get to the top of the hill, where there is an important Hindu shrine. Habitat along the road is primarily scrubby bush. Local experts indicate that the better birding is closer to the foot of the hill. We drove as far as we felt was reasonable in an ordinary car (perhaps 3 kilometers) and then walked back down. The Yellow-cheeked Tits were quite active, as were the Red-vented Bulbul, but the bushes were again relatively quiet. The highlight of the trip down was a pair of Rufous Sibia. The remainder of the afternoon at Godawari added a few more species, but remained quiet.

Royal Chitwan National Park (March 11 through 15)

Royal Chitwan is located in the south central part of Nepal. This jungle preserve is the oldest national park in Nepal. It was originally a hunting preserve for the Nepali royal family, so it has been preserved as jungle and never settled as population expanded into southern Nepal. The preserve is the floodplain and channel of the Narayani and Rapti Rivers and their tributaries and the adjacent grassland and jungle. The grassland and jungle struck me more as something that I would call savanna and scrub forest, and rather reminded me of parts of my native Texas. I think that I tend to think of "jungle" as rainforest, and that the more open, dryer forest at Chitwan is authentic Asian jungle. The most significant animal species there are tiger and one-horned rhinoceros, as well as abundant monkey, wild boar, and various species of deer.

There are many places to stay inside of Royal Chitwan National Park. Most of these facilities have a single per day price which includes room, meals, transportation (via jeep or elephant), and guides. You can also stay outside of the park and find elephants (the best way to get around in the jungle) and guides on your own. I stayed at Chitwan Jungle Lodge (CJL), one of the fixed price camps within the park. It is a very pleasant facility with cabin-style rooms with private toilet and shower and hot and cold running water. Electricity is available briefly each evening, and kerosene lanterns are provided. Meals were provided in a common dining hall. Activities at CJL were a bit more fixed than at Aqua Birds (elephant ride at 7 AM, elephant talk at 10, elephant bath a 1...). However, the staff was quite willing to tailor activities to my needs, and I ended up with two very good guides (Harka and Janak) who helped me out. While not as passionately interested in birds as the folks at Aqua Birds, they were quite knowledgeable and phenomenally sharp-eyed.

Although the average visitor to Chitwan spends much of the time on an elephant, photographing is not an elephant-back activity. I'm not sure about birding, but I'd guess that's also best done on foot. If you want to see rhino, wild boar, deer, or tiger, however, the elephant is the way to go. There is some risk involved in moving around in the bush on foot, since both rhino and sloth bear can be very aggressive. A CJL guide was actually bitten fairly seriously by a sloth bear while I was there. The guides are very tuned in to watching for rhino and bear sign, and I made sure I took their advice about where and where not to go.

My best luck birding was generally along the banks of a tributary of the Rapti River within easy walking distance of CJL. There is a 5-20 foot bluff along the tributary, with a bit of shrub and grassland between the tributary on the edge of the bluff. You can look down into the grassland and get a good view of the bird activity there. A number of the insect-eating birds seem to be partial to the edge of the bluff itself. You can also see out over the grassland in the flood plain toward the main branch of the river and spot raptors cruising. Prinia, Common Iora, Red-capped Babbler, Yellow-eyed Babbler, Himalayan Bulbul, Red-vented Bulbul, Red-whiskered Bulbul and Chestnut-headed Bee-eater are all prevalent in this area. Raptors I saw, with some very close views, included Crested Serpent Eagle, Oriental Honey-buzzard and Lesser Spotted Eagle. I also got a glimpse of a Giant Hornbill (what a sight!) in the grassland, and Blue Peafowl are both audible and visible in the distance. Waders (Temminck's Stint, Little Ringed Plover, River Lapwing, Red-wattled Lapwing, Greenshank, Green Sandpiper), heron (generally Little Heron), and kingfisher (White-throated, Pied, and Common) can be seen in the tributary itself, along with wagtail. We spent quite a bit of time looking for Siberian Rubythroat in burned areas along the bluff. I caught a number of glimpses of the bird, but it is a real skulker. Both a Brown Crake and a Ruddy Crake were lurking among the reeds along the tributary.

I also birded some in the grassland in the floodplain. There seem to be many brush-birds there (prinia, Red-capped and Yellow-eyed Babbler, Zitting Cisticola, Common Stonechat, Pied Bushchat, Blue Peafowl, Black Redstart, Long-tailed Shrike). Particularly exciting was a rather shy grey quail which moved rather slowly through the thick brush to the edge of the road and, while I stood with my camera poised, squirted across the road at a dead sprint.

By the river itself, there are Woolly-necked Stork, Lesser Adjutant, and various heron, together with range of shorebird similar to those in the tributary. I'm sure there are many more shorebird and heron to be seen, but I did not spend a great deal of time at the river.

I also did not spend a great deal of time in the jungle, since photography is extremely difficult there. I did spend a fair amount of time right at CJL, where I watched Common Iora, a Velvet-fronted Nuthatch, white-eye, Scaly Thrush, Tickell's Thrush, and Red-billed Blue Magpie. One of the highlights was watching a pair of White-throated Fantail dance in the bushes behind one of the cabins. My cabin was clearly part of the territory of a Red Jungle-fowl, which alleviated any need for an alarm clock. During walks through the jungle, I saw a number of parakeet (Rose-ringed and Blossom-headed), several species of woodpecker (Black-tailed Flameback, Grey-capped Pygmy, Fulvous-breasted), Emerald Dove, and Lineated Barbet.

My species total for four days at Chitwan was 99. Again, I'm sure that a pure birding trip would net many more species, particularly if more time was spent in the jungle. I don't think that you will find quite as much diversity at Chitwan as at Koshi Tappu because there are few wetlands there; however, there is a definitely different species mix in the two areas.

Royal Bardia National Park (March 17-20)

Royal Bardia National Park is in southwestern Nepal and is more remote than either Koshi Tappu or Chitwan. The country here is similar to that at Chitwan, but considerably dryer, and it reminds me even more of savanna and grassland. There are wild elephant (the only area of Nepal that has them), re-introduced one-horned rhinoceros, tiger, rhesus macaque, langur, sloth bear, and many ungulates in the preserve. The preserve is centered around tributaries and branches of the Karnali River.

There are a handful of places to stay near and inside the park. I stayed in the lodge and tented camp run by Tiger Tops, the most luxurious of the jungle lodge operators in Nepal. Like the facilities at Chitwan, they are a "fixed price" operation. You pay a per day rate which includes room, board, meals, guides, elephants, and jeeps. The lodge is fairly luxurious, with large rooms, in-room bathroom, hot and cold water. Electricity is part time, with kerosene lanterns provided. The tented camp is set in a beautiful location amongst the jungle on a high bluff overlooking the Geruna branch of the Karnali River. The camp is a bit rougher than other places I stayed, but is far from primitive. The tents are safari style with single-bed cots. There are showers, but no hot water, and there is no running water for toilets or other washing. This being said, the pit toilets were very civilized, and they provided plenty of water for other uses in conveniently-placed jugs. The staff at Tiger Tops accommodated my birding and photography requests, but they were a bit less flexible and seemed a bit less committed to understanding and providing the help I needed than the other places. The birding knowledge level of the guides was also more variable, ranging from very good to fair.

From the Karnali Lodge, I birded in the riverine forest and in the grassland, as well as in the jungle immediately around the camp. From the Tented Camp, I birded in several different areas along the branch of the Karnali as well as in the jungle at the Chisipani bridge, just outside of the preserve.

In the riverine forest I got an excellent view of Crested Serpent Eagle, Red Jungle-fowl, Jungle Owlet, Indian Roller, Hoopoe, Grey and Pied Hornbill, and Small Minivet. In the grassland, I saw a collection of babbler, bulbul, bushchat, and shrike, as well as Blue-tailed Bee-eater and a Greater Raquet-tailed Drongo. Along a ditch that fronts a jungle edge just past the elephant camp at Karnali Lodge I had a wonderful morning of edge-watching. There were Chestnut-tailed Starling, Iora, White-eye, Tickell's Thrush, Orange-headed Thrush, Chestnut-shouldered Petronia, and flowerpecker. The most spectacular bird of the morning was a Golden-fronted Leafbird, which I got a good look at for the first time. I also got some good looks at Blossom-headed Parakeet, Indian Roller, and Indian Treepie just by the elephant camp.

Along the river near the tented camp, there were Common Merganser, Little and Great Cormorant, Black Ibis, various kingfisher and waders. On the banks, there are bulbul and an array of grassland species that I saw elsewhere. My most exciting sightings were a very good look at a female Purple Sunbird and a male and female pair of Crested Bunting. I greatly enjoyed watching a dozen or so Woolly-necked Stork and a large flock of Great Cormorant splashing about the river one evening about three miles downstream from the camp. They were, of course, just out of range of a good photograph.

My morning at Chisipani bridge (in the jungle on the east side of the bridge and north side of the road) was something of a disappointment. There had reportedly been some flowering trees that attracted many parakeets and other birds a week or so before, but the flowers were gone, and so were most of the birds. I nonetheless saw a couple of new species there (a spectacular Green-billed Malkoha and a Crimson Sunbird) in the course of a rather quiet morning. I understand that this can be a great spot, so I must have just been unlucky or had bad timing.

I took a boat ride on the Geruna branch of the Karnali to return from the tented camp to the lodge. It was really a lovely and relaxing ride, and I saw much interesting bird life, although few new species. Most memorable were a pair of Jungle Crow mating and a seemingly unskillful Osprey fishing. The male crow landed on a branch next to the female, hopped up to her and handed ("beaked"?) her something, then fluttered up and mated with her. After the deed was done, he hopped off a few paces and they took stock of one another. River and Black-bellied Tern, kingfisher, Small Pratincole, various heron, darter, large and small cormorant, Ruddy Shelduck, and parakeets overhead were all featured. We also seemed to be following a troop of otter down the river, and had the pleasure of watching them swim, emerge onto the bank, and swim again several times. Crocodile, gharial, rhesus macaque, and langur monkey werealso in evidence.

My species count for Bardia was a rather disappointing 85 species. I attribute this at least partly to my own fatigue and partly to less skillful and interested assistance from my guides. I'm not sure whether there are actually fewer species to be seen there than at Chitwan.

Species List

KT indicates species seen at Koshi Tappu
RC indicates species seen at Royal Chitwan
RB indicates species seen at Royal Bardia
P/G indicates species seen at Pulchowki/Godawari

Species names and order follow A Guide to the Birds of Indian, Pakistan, Nepal, bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Grimmett, Richard, Carol Inskipp and Tim Inskipp. Princeton University Press. 1999.

Black Francolin       Francolinus francolinus           RC  RB
Grey Francolin        Francolinus pondicerianus         RC
Swamp Francolin       Francolinus gularis           KT
Red Junglefowl        Gallus gallus                     RC  RB
Indian Peafowl        Pavo cristatus                    RC  RB
Bar-Headed Goose      Anser indicus                 KT
Lesser Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna javacica          KT
Ruddy Shelduck        Tadorna ferruginea            KT  RC  RB
Gadwall               Anas strepera                 KT
Falcated Duck         Anas falcata                  KT
Eurasian Wigeon       Anas penelope                 KT
Mallard               Anas platyrhynchos            KT
Common Teal           Anas crecca                   KT
Garganey              Anas querquedula              KT
Northern Pintail      Anas acuta                    KT
Northern Shoveler     Anas clypeata                 KT
Red-Crested Pochard   Rhodonessa rufina             KT
Ferruginous Pochard   Aythya nyroca                 KT
Common Merganser      Mergus merganser                      RB
Grey-Capped Pygmy     Dendrocopos canicapillus          RC
Fulvous-Breasted      Dendrocopos macei                 RC
Grey-Headed           Picus canus
Himalayan Flameback   Dinopium shorii                       RB
Black-Rumped          Donopium behghalense          KT      RB
Greater Flameback     Chrysocolaptes lucidus            RC
Lineated Barbet       Megalaima lineata                 RC  RB
Blue-Throated Barbet  Megalaima asiatica            KT
Indian Grey Hornbill  Ocyceros birostris                RC  RB
Oriental Pied         Anthracoceros albirostris             RB
Great Hornbill        Buceros bicornis                  RC
Common Hoopoe         Upupa epops                   KT      RB
Indian Roller         Coracias benghalensis         KT  RC  RB
Common Kingfisher     Alcedo atthis                 KT  RC  RB
Stork-Billed          Halcyon coromanda             KT
White-Throated        Halcyon smyrnensis            KT  RC  RB  P/G
Pied Kingfisher       Ceryle rudis                  KT  RC  RB
Green Bee-Eater       Nyctoyornis athertoni         KT  RC  RB
Blue-Tailed Bee-Eater Merops philippinus                    RB
Chestnut-Headed       Merops leschenaulti               RC  RB
Common Hawk Cuckoo    Hierococcyx varius            KT  RC
Plaintive Cuckoo      Cacomantis merulinus          KT
Green-Billed Malkoha  Phaenicophaeus tristis                RB
Greater Coucal        Centropus sinensis            KT  RC  RB
Lesser Coucal         Centropus bengalensis             RC
Alexandrine Parakeet  Psittacula eupatria               RC  RB
Rose-Ringed Parakeet  Psittacula krameri                RC  RB
Blossom-Headed        Psittacula roseata                RC  RB
Crested Treeswift     Hemiprocne coronata               RC
Asian Barred Owlet    Glaucicium cuculoides                 RB
Jungle Owlet          Glaucidium radiatum           KT  RC  RB
Spotted Owlet         Athene brama                  KT
Rock Pigeon           Columba livia
Oriental Turtle Dove  Streptopelia orientalis           RC         P/G
Spotted Dove          Streptopelia chinensis        KT  RC  RB
Eurasian Collared Dove  Streptopelia decaocto       KT  RC  RB
Emerald Dove          Chalcophaps indica                RC  RB
Yellow-Footed Green   Treron phoenicoptera              RC
Orange-Breasted       Treron pompadora              KT
   Green Pigeon
Brown Crake           Amaurornis akool                  RC
White-Breasted        Amaurornis phoenicurus        KT
Ruddy-Breasted Crake  Porzana fuscu                     RC
Purple Swamphen       Porphyrio porphyrio           KT
Common Moorhen        Gallinula chloropus           KT
Common Coot           Fulica atra                   KT
Common Snipe          Gallinago gallinago           KT
Eurasian Curlew       Numenius arquata              KT
Common Greenshank     Tringa nebularia                  RC
Green Sandpiper       Tringa ochropus               KT  RC
Wood Sandpiper        Tringa glareola               KT
Common Sandpiper      Actitis hypoleucos                RC  RB
Temminck's Stint      Calidris temminckii           KT  RC
Bronze-Winged Jacana  Metopidius indicus            KT
Great Thick-Knee      Esacus recurvirostris                 RB
Small Pratincole      Glareola lactea               KT      RB
Little Ringed Plover  Charadrius dubius             KT  RC
River Lapwing         Vanellus duvaucelii               RC  RB
Red-Wattled Lapwing   Vanellus indicus              KT  RC  RB
Pallas's Gull         Larus ichthyaetus             KT
Brown-Headed Gull     Larus brunnicephalus          KT
River Tern            Sterna aurantia               KT      RB
Black-Bellied Tern    Sterna acuticauda             KT      RB
Osprey                Pandion haliaetus             KT      RB
Black-Shouldered Kite Elanus caeruleus              KT
Black(-eared) Kite    Milvus (migrans) lineatus
White-Rumped Vulture  Gyps bengalensis              KT
Long-Billed Vulture   Gyps indicus                  KT      RB
Himalayan Griffon     Gyps himalayensis
Cinerous Vulture      Aegypius monachus                     RB
Eurasian Griffon      Gyps fulvus                   KT
Crested Serpent Eagle Spilornis cheela              KT  RC  RB
Eurasian Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosis           KT
Pied Harrier          Circus melanoleucos           KT
Hen Harrier           Circus cyaneus                KT
Shikra                Accipiter badius              KT      RB
Eurasian Sparrowhawk  Accipiter nisus                       RB
Oriental Honey-Buzzard Pernis ptilorhyncus              RC
White-Eyed Buzzard    Butastur teesa                KT
Lesser Spotted Eagle  Aquila pomarina                   RC
Chageable Hawk Eagle  Spizaetus cirrhatus                   RB
Common Kestrel        Falxo tinnunculua             KT  RC
Red-Necked Falcon     Falco chicquera               KT
Peregrine Falcon      Falco peregrinus              KT      RB
Little Grebe          Tachybaptus ruficollis        KT
Great Crested Grebe   Podiceps cristatus            KT
Darter                Anhinga melanogaster          KT      RB
Little Cormorant      Phalacrocorax niger           KT      RB
Great Cormorant       Phalacrocorax carbo           KT  RC  RB
Little Egret          Egretta garzetta              KT  RC
Great Egret           Casmerodius albus             KT  RC  RB
Intermediate Egret    Mesophoyx intermedia          KT  RC  RB
Cattle Egret          Bubulcus ibis                 KT          P/G
Indian Pond Heron     Ardeola grayii                KT  RC  RB
Gray Heron            Ardea cinerea                 KT
Purple Heron          Ardea purpurea                KT
Little Heron          Butorides striatus            KT  RC
Black-Crowned Night   Nycticorax nycticorax         KT
Cinnamon Bittern      Ixobrychus cinnamomeus        KT
Black-Headed Ibis     Threskiornis melanocephalus   KT
Black Ibis            Pseudibis papillosa           KT      RB
Eurasian Spoonbill    Platalea leucorodia           KT
Asian Openbill        Anastomus oscitans            KT
Woolly-Necked Stork   Ciconia episcopus                 RC  RB
Black-Necked Stork    Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus    KT
Lesser Adjutant       Leptoptilos javanicus         KT  RC
Golden-Fronted        Chloropsis aurifrons              RC  RB
Brown Shrike          Lanius cristatus              KT
Long-Tailed Shrike    Lanius schach                 KT  RC  RB
Red-Billed Blue       Urocissa erythrorhyncha           RC      P/G
Rufous Treepie        Dendrocitta vagabunda         KT  RC  RB
House Crow            Corvus splendens              KT          P/G
Large-Billed Crow     Corvus macrorhynchos          KT  RC  RB  P/G
Ashy Woodswallow      Artamus fuscus                    RC
Black-Hooded Oriole   Oriolus xanthormus            KT  RC  RB
Rosy Minivet          Pericrocotus roseus
Small Minivet         Pericrocotus cinnamomeus          RC  RB
Scarlet Minivet       Pericrocotus flammeus             RC      P/G
Bar-Winged            Hemipus picatus                       RB
White-Throated Fantail Rhipidura albicollis             RC
Black Drongo          Dicrurus macrocercus          KT  RC
Ashy Drongo           Dicrurus leucophaeus          KT          P/G
White-Bellied Drongo  Dicrurus caerulescens                 RB
Spangled Drongo       Dicrurus hottentottus             RC
Greater Raquet-Tailed Dicrurus paradiseus                   RB
Common Iora           Aegithina tiphia                  RC  RB
Blue Rock Thrush      Monticola solitarius          KT
Orange-Headed Thrush  Zoothera citrina                      RB
Scaly Thrush          Zoothera dauma                    RC
Tickell's Thrush      Turdus unicolor                   RC  RB
Dark-Throated Thrush  Turdus ruficollis             KT
Red-Throated          Ficedula parva                        RB
Verditer Flycatcher   Eumyias thalassina            KT
Grey-Headed Canary    Culicicapa ceylonensis                  P/G
Siberian Rubythroat   Luscinia calliope                 RC
Bluethroat            Luscinian svecica             KT
Oriental Magpie Robin Copsychus saularis            KT
White-Rumped Shama    Copsychus malabaricus                 RB
Black Redstart        Phoenicurus ochruros          KT  RC
Common Stonechat      Saxicola torquata             KT  RC
White-Tailed          Saxicola leucura                      RB
Pied Bushchat         Saxicola caprata                  RC  RB
Chestnut-Tailed       Sturnus malabaricus           KT  RC  RB
Common Starling       Sturnus vulgaris              KT
Asian Pied Starling   Sturnus contra                KT
Common Myna           Acridotheres tristis          KT      RB
Bank Myna             Acridtheres ginginianus
Jungle Myna           Acridotheres fuscus               RC
Hill Myna             Gracula religiosa                 RC
Chestnut-Bellied      Sitta castnea                     RC      P/G
Velvet-Fronted        Sitta frontalis                   RC
Great Tit             Parus major                       RC
Yellow-Cheeked Tit    Parus spilonotus                          P/G
Sand Martin           Riparia riparia                   RC
Barn Swallow          Hirundo rustica               KT
Red-Whiskered Bulbul  Pycnonotus jocosus            KT  RC  RB
Himalayan Bulbul      Pycnonotus leucogenys             RC
Red-Vented Bulbul     Pycnonotus cafer              KT  RC  RB  P/G
Black Bulbul          Hypsipetes leucocephalus              RB
Grey-Crowned Prinia   Prinia cinereocapilla             RC
Grey-Breasted Prinia  Prinia hodgesonii                 RC
Yellow-Bellied Prinia Prinia flaviventris                   RB
Plain Prinia          Prinia inornata                   RC
Ashy Prinia           Prinia socialis                   RC
Zitting Cisticola     Cisticola jundicis                RC
Oriental White-Eye    Zosterops palpebrosus                 RB  P/G
Paddyfield Warbler    Acrocephalus agricola         KT
Striated Grassbird    Megalurus palustris           KT
Common Tailorbird     Orthotomus stutorius          KT      RB
Smoky Warbler         Phylloscopus fuligiventer     KT
Tickell's Leaf        Phylloscopus affinis          KT
Chestnut-Capped       Timalia pileata                   RC  RB
Yellow-Eyed Babbler   Chrysomma sinense                 RC
Striated Babbler      Turdoides earlei              KT  RC
Jungle Babbler        Turdoides striatus            KT  RC  RB
Rufous Sibia          Heterophasia capistrata                   P/G
Ashy-Crowned Sparrow  Eremopterix grisea            KT
Thick-Billed          Dicaeum agile                         RB
Pale-Billed           Dicaeum erythrorynchos            RC
Purple Sunbird        Nectarinia asiatica           KT  RC  RB
Crimson Sunbird       Aethopyga siparaja                    RB
House Sparrow         Passer domesticus             KT
Chestnut-Shouldered   Petronis xanthocollis                 RB
White Wagtail         Motacilla alba                KT  RC  RB
White-Browed Wagtail  Motacilla maderaspatensis     KT  RC  RB
Citrine Wagtail       Motacilla citreola                RC
Yellow Wagtail        Motacilla flava                   RC
Grey Wagtail          Motacilla cinerea             KT  RC  RB
Paddyfield Pipit      Anthus rufulus                KT  RC
Olive-Backed Pipit    Anthus hodgsoni               KT      RB
Rosy Pipit            Anthus roseatus               KT  RC
Yellow-Breasted       Emberiza aureola                  RC
Crested Bunting       Melophus lathami                      RB

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This page served with permission of the author by Urs Geiser;; June 25, 1999