I spent three weeks photographing birds in the lowlands of southern Nepal between March 1 and March 23. Areas birded included Pulchowki/Godawari (near Kathmandu), Koshi Tappu Wildlife Preserve (southeast Nepal), Royal Chitwan National Park (south central Nepal), and Royal Bardia National Park (southwestern Nepal). It was a great trip, with an incredible number of life birds for me, since I've never birded outside of North and Central America before. The people helping me out (Paramount Nepal Tours (my travel agent), the guides in the natural areas, the hotel staff, etc.) were all extremely nice. Guides in the natural areas were generally very knowledgeable and were quite patient with catering to the needs of a bird photographer, something that was somewhat novel to most of them. The country itself is fascinating; when you are not birding and not in one of the protected natural areas the activities of daily life surround you continuously.
Because I was concentrating on photography (rather than on simply birding), I did not see as many species as a "pure" birder would have. Nonetheless, I saw a total of approximately 211 species. The following trip report is a summary of my trip. I've tried to hit the highlights, rather than giving all details of all days of birding. My species list for the full trip, with an indication of where each species was seen is at the end of the text.
I spent my time in Nepal mostly in the southern part of the country in the lowland areas (called the Terai) near the Indian border. This part of the country was a sparsely populated malarial swamp prior to the 1950s, when the Nepali government began a successful campaign to eradicate malaria. Once malaria was controlled, the expanding population of Nepal's hills, as well as people from the neighboring areas of India, began to move into the Terai. At this point, the area is heavily agricultural and almost completely populated. The three areas I visited in the Terai (Koshi Tappu, Royal Chitwan, and Royal Bardia) are three of the four protected areas in the Terai, and they represent most of what remains in Nepal of continuously shrinking wetland, flood plain, and riverine forest habitats. All of the areas have restricted entry and entry fees. It is necessary to have a guide with you while you are inside the preserves. Aside from the legal requirement for a guide, all of the areas have potentially dangerous animals (wild water buffalo at Koshi Tappu and tiger, sloth bear and rhino and Chitwan and Bardia) so that it is wise to have an experienced guide nearby.
Anyone with specific questions about my trip arrangements is welcome to contact me.
I was in Kathmandu at the beginning of my trip and went back between other destinations, since I traveled by air, and all flights originate there. I did not bird much in Kathmandu itself, concentrating more on the life of the city. However, my hotel (the Nirvana Garden in Thamel) had a very nice garden away from the street where there were Oriental Magpie Robin, House Sparrows, House Crows, and some tricky small birds I never could get a good look at. In addition, Black(-eared) Kites in large numbers mingle with the House Crows along the rivers, where they all scavenge in the amazingly filthy water.
Koshi Tappu Wildlife Preserve is a 170 square kilometer area in the southeastern part of Nepal along the Koshi River. The preserve is primarily made up of the river and the flood plain between the river levees. There are a number of ponds in the floodplain inside the levees, as well as a fairly extensive area of wetlands along the outside of the levee system. The preserve was set up to protect the only remaining population of wild water buffalo in Nepal; however, the wetland area that was protected has been designated as a RAMSAR site (a wetland of international importance) by IUCN in 1987. As the human population of Nepal's wetlands increases, the wetlands at Koshi Tappu are increasingly isolated and unique, and they provide a very important habitat for migration stops and breeding for wetland-dependant bird species.
I stayed at Aqua Birds Unlimited Camp, a tented camp about 100 yards outside of the east side of the preserve, very near the park headquarters. The camp is set up with safari tents with two cots (basically single beds) in each tent. There is electricity and hot and cold running water. Showers and toilets are in a separate building. All meals are provided in a common dining hall. Unlike the other places I stayed in Nepal (and unlike most of the other tourist facilities in natural areas), Aqua Birds is specifically set up for birders. The location was chosen for its birding potential, and the guides are extremely knowledgeable about the bird species. I spent most of my time with Rajendra Suwal, the Director of Operations, and Dinesh Giri, one of the guides. Both are passionate birders. Rabindra Shrestha, who is also co-owner of a book shop in Kathmandu, also helped for part of the time and is very knowledgeable as well. Guides and guests gathered at meal times to compare notes for the day, and activities were tailored to the interests of each party of guests. My fellow guests were all birders of varying experience levels.
The camp is surrounded by wetlands and rice paddies, with a medium-sized pond just outside. A blind near the dining hall provides a good view of the pond, which had a constantly changing population of migratory ducks while I was there. The marsh areas just around the camp have a pretty wide variety of marsh birds, including snipe, wagtail, drongo, stork, ibis, Striated Grassbird, myna, and four species of kingfisher, among others.
I spent considerable time while I was there photographing ducks, Common Moorhen, Purple Moorhen, Little Grebe, Kingfisher (Pied, White-breasted, Stork-billed and Common), Wagtail, Little Ringed Plover, Myna, Pond Heron, drongo, pipit, snipe, and the Striated Grassbird at the camp. It was quite easy to get reasonably close to the marsh birds by standing along the raised paths and watching the action in the wetland. The ducks on the pond were a little more difficult to photograph (distances were a bit long), but they also provided some good opportunities. Duck species included Falcated Teal, Northern Pintail, Red-crested Pochard, and lesser whistling duck.
Most of my time in the preserve itself was spent walking along the levy on the east side of the preserve and on the spur levies perpendicular to it. I also spent quite a lot of time at some of the larger ponds. The levies are planted with a variety of trees, while the remainder of the flood plain is primarily grass land near the levy and sand closer to the river. There are quite a few ponds just inside of the levy, so that there are water-associated birds such as moorhen and kingfisher. Vultures and raptors are plentiful overhead; bulbuls, doves, orioles, tailorbird, leaf warblers, jungle and spotted owlet, and myna populate the trees along the levy; storks, ibis, and heron are found in the ponds and roosting in trees; babblers, bee-eaters, Greater Coucal, Brain-fever Bird, Black Francolin and Swamp Francolin populate the grassland; duck, more heron and ibis, spoonbill, plovers, darters, cormorant and osprey are found along the river. There is a heavier woodland band inside the levy about 5 miles north of the camp where there are reportedly Brown Fish Owl. This proved a difficult one for me... we spent several hours looking on two successive days without finding the owl. Highlights of the preserve for me were a Black-necked Stork, Asian Openbill, Lesser Adjutant, Swamp Francolin, Common Hoopoe, Black-headed Ibis, Green Bee-eaters, Striated Babbler, and an extremely calm Black-shouldered Kite which allowed me to come within 15 or 20 feet and minded so little that I left him sitting on his branch.
Because there are wetland areas outside of the preserve in the midst of the rice paddies there is good birding there as well. Pipits, wagtail, stork, ibis, heron, moorhen and Cinnamon Bittern, hoopoe, ducks, and jacana are there. A Baillon's Crake was seen by some of my fellow birders but proved elusive for me. One evening, as I followed a pair of Common Hoopoe along a berm, I watched women and children harvesting sugar cane off to one side. As the evening waned Bluethroat began hopping on the ground amidst the cane, and Bushchat and bulbul began to bubble out of the top of the remaining cane like popcorn. A boy waded in a nearby pond putting out fishing lines while Bronze-winged Jacana hopped across the pond vegetation.
An excursion from Aqua Birds was a trip down the Kosi River via flat-bottomed skiff. It was a hot day, and the quiet light blue water, hazy sky and white sand made it a peaceful and sleepy float. Osprey, Red-wattled Lapwing, shorebirds, Ruddy Shelduck, Mallard (not so common there), Spoonbill, heron, ibis, Peregrine Falcon, darters and cormorant were all readily observable.
After the boat trip, we drove down to Koshi Barrage. Driving downstream from the barrage itself, we were startled to see about 75 vultures (White-rumped, Indian Griffon, and Eurasion Griffon) standing in a field about 50 feet from the road. We piled out (immediately attracting a crowd of curious children) and saw a dead and flayed cow being dismembered by a pack of dogs. The vultures were waiting their turn. The silent, still crowd of enormous birds quietly waiting their turn is one of the more eerie sights that I've ever seen. The White-rumped Vultures looked rather like solemn barristers in black robes with light fur collars. Back upstream from the dam we went to the "pink tower" that is mentioned in some of the guidebooks, where we watched the reservoir (which looks much like the river) and a large flock of Small Pratincole as the sun set and the Black Francolin called. The pink tower is a good observation spot, but it is decaying, and the lower floors are filled with garbage.
My total species list for Kosi Tappu comes to a relatively unimpressive 122 species, but, because my eye was glued to the viewfinder most of the time, that greatly understates the birding possibilities there. Three very keen Scottish birders who were there at the same time saw over 200 species in three days there, including a trip to Dahran forest, about 1.5 hours away by car. In addition to the birds, I saw mongoose, wild water buffalo, wild boar, hog deer, crocodile, and Gangetic dolphin while I was there.
Pulchowki is an undeveloped north-facing mountainside on the southern side of the Kathmandu valley, and Godawari is a royal botanical garden nearby. Because the Kathmandu valley is heavily developed and farmed, there is very little forest area left elsewhere in the valley, and the Pulchowki/Godawari area is one of the few remaining places to see species with a middle elevation (about 1800 meters above sea level) forest species. That being said, I had a very quiet day in the Pulchowki/Godawari area. Local birders I spoke to agreed that the area is extremely variable - sometimes there are lots of birds, sometimes few, and we appeared to hit a day with few. It was quite hot, and it had been unusually dry during the preceding weeks, so the speculation was that the migration was early, and most of the birds had already gone by.
We left from Kathmandu at about 7:30 AM, and arrived at Godawari about 8 AM. The sun takes a while to reach the area, so this timing was about appropriate. We stayed in the botanical garden until about 9:30, where we saw Red-vented Bulbul, Yellow-cheeked Tit, Jungle Crow, Scarlet Minivet, Grey-headed Canary Flycatcher, and House Crow. Frustrated by the quiet, we headed up to Pulchowki. The road up the hill at Pulchowki is partially paved and partially unpaved, and it takes four-wheel drive to get to the top of the hill, where there is an important Hindu shrine. Habitat along the road is primarily scrubby bush. Local experts indicate that the better birding is closer to the foot of the hill. We drove as far as we felt was reasonable in an ordinary car (perhaps 3 kilometers) and then walked back down. The Yellow-cheeked Tits were quite active, as were the Red-vented Bulbul, but the bushes were again relatively quiet. The highlight of the trip down was a pair of Rufous Sibia. The remainder of the afternoon at Godawari added a few more species, but remained quiet.
Royal Chitwan is located in the south central part of Nepal. This jungle preserve is the oldest national park in Nepal. It was originally a hunting preserve for the Nepali royal family, so it has been preserved as jungle and never settled as population expanded into southern Nepal. The preserve is the floodplain and channel of the Narayani and Rapti Rivers and their tributaries and the adjacent grassland and jungle. The grassland and jungle struck me more as something that I would call savanna and scrub forest, and rather reminded me of parts of my native Texas. I think that I tend to think of "jungle" as rainforest, and that the more open, dryer forest at Chitwan is authentic Asian jungle. The most significant animal species there are tiger and one-horned rhinoceros, as well as abundant monkey, wild boar, and various species of deer.
There are many places to stay inside of Royal Chitwan National Park. Most of these facilities have a single per day price which includes room, meals, transportation (via jeep or elephant), and guides. You can also stay outside of the park and find elephants (the best way to get around in the jungle) and guides on your own. I stayed at Chitwan Jungle Lodge (CJL), one of the fixed price camps within the park. It is a very pleasant facility with cabin-style rooms with private toilet and shower and hot and cold running water. Electricity is available briefly each evening, and kerosene lanterns are provided. Meals were provided in a common dining hall. Activities at CJL were a bit more fixed than at Aqua Birds (elephant ride at 7 AM, elephant talk at 10, elephant bath a 1...). However, the staff was quite willing to tailor activities to my needs, and I ended up with two very good guides (Harka and Janak) who helped me out. While not as passionately interested in birds as the folks at Aqua Birds, they were quite knowledgeable and phenomenally sharp-eyed.
Although the average visitor to Chitwan spends much of the time on an elephant, photographing is not an elephant-back activity. I'm not sure about birding, but I'd guess that's also best done on foot. If you want to see rhino, wild boar, deer, or tiger, however, the elephant is the way to go. There is some risk involved in moving around in the bush on foot, since both rhino and sloth bear can be very aggressive. A CJL guide was actually bitten fairly seriously by a sloth bear while I was there. The guides are very tuned in to watching for rhino and bear sign, and I made sure I took their advice about where and where not to go.
My best luck birding was generally along the banks of a tributary of the Rapti River within easy walking distance of CJL. There is a 5-20 foot bluff along the tributary, with a bit of shrub and grassland between the tributary on the edge of the bluff. You can look down into the grassland and get a good view of the bird activity there. A number of the insect-eating birds seem to be partial to the edge of the bluff itself. You can also see out over the grassland in the flood plain toward the main branch of the river and spot raptors cruising. Prinia, Common Iora, Red-capped Babbler, Yellow-eyed Babbler, Himalayan Bulbul, Red-vented Bulbul, Red-whiskered Bulbul and Chestnut-headed Bee-eater are all prevalent in this area. Raptors I saw, with some very close views, included Crested Serpent Eagle, Oriental Honey-buzzard and Lesser Spotted Eagle. I also got a glimpse of a Giant Hornbill (what a sight!) in the grassland, and Blue Peafowl are both audible and visible in the distance. Waders (Temminck's Stint, Little Ringed Plover, River Lapwing, Red-wattled Lapwing, Greenshank, Green Sandpiper), heron (generally Little Heron), and kingfisher (White-throated, Pied, and Common) can be seen in the tributary itself, along with wagtail. We spent quite a bit of time looking for Siberian Rubythroat in burned areas along the bluff. I caught a number of glimpses of the bird, but it is a real skulker. Both a Brown Crake and a Ruddy Crake were lurking among the reeds along the tributary.
I also birded some in the grassland in the floodplain. There seem to be many brush-birds there (prinia, Red-capped and Yellow-eyed Babbler, Zitting Cisticola, Common Stonechat, Pied Bushchat, Blue Peafowl, Black Redstart, Long-tailed Shrike). Particularly exciting was a rather shy grey quail which moved rather slowly through the thick brush to the edge of the road and, while I stood with my camera poised, squirted across the road at a dead sprint.
By the river itself, there are Woolly-necked Stork, Lesser Adjutant, and various heron, together with range of shorebird similar to those in the tributary. I'm sure there are many more shorebird and heron to be seen, but I did not spend a great deal of time at the river.
I also did not spend a great deal of time in the jungle, since photography is extremely difficult there. I did spend a fair amount of time right at CJL, where I watched Common Iora, a Velvet-fronted Nuthatch, white-eye, Scaly Thrush, Tickell's Thrush, and Red-billed Blue Magpie. One of the highlights was watching a pair of White-throated Fantail dance in the bushes behind one of the cabins. My cabin was clearly part of the territory of a Red Jungle-fowl, which alleviated any need for an alarm clock. During walks through the jungle, I saw a number of parakeet (Rose-ringed and Blossom-headed), several species of woodpecker (Black-tailed Flameback, Grey-capped Pygmy, Fulvous-breasted), Emerald Dove, and Lineated Barbet.
My species total for four days at Chitwan was 99. Again, I'm sure that a pure birding trip would net many more species, particularly if more time was spent in the jungle. I don't think that you will find quite as much diversity at Chitwan as at Koshi Tappu because there are few wetlands there; however, there is a definitely different species mix in the two areas.
Royal Bardia National Park is in southwestern Nepal and is more remote than either Koshi Tappu or Chitwan. The country here is similar to that at Chitwan, but considerably dryer, and it reminds me even more of savanna and grassland. There are wild elephant (the only area of Nepal that has them), re-introduced one-horned rhinoceros, tiger, rhesus macaque, langur, sloth bear, and many ungulates in the preserve. The preserve is centered around tributaries and branches of the Karnali River.
There are a handful of places to stay near and inside the park. I stayed in the lodge and tented camp run by Tiger Tops, the most luxurious of the jungle lodge operators in Nepal. Like the facilities at Chitwan, they are a "fixed price" operation. You pay a per day rate which includes room, board, meals, guides, elephants, and jeeps. The lodge is fairly luxurious, with large rooms, in-room bathroom, hot and cold water. Electricity is part time, with kerosene lanterns provided. The tented camp is set in a beautiful location amongst the jungle on a high bluff overlooking the Geruna branch of the Karnali River. The camp is a bit rougher than other places I stayed, but is far from primitive. The tents are safari style with single-bed cots. There are showers, but no hot water, and there is no running water for toilets or other washing. This being said, the pit toilets were very civilized, and they provided plenty of water for other uses in conveniently-placed jugs. The staff at Tiger Tops accommodated my birding and photography requests, but they were a bit less flexible and seemed a bit less committed to understanding and providing the help I needed than the other places. The birding knowledge level of the guides was also more variable, ranging from very good to fair.
From the Karnali Lodge, I birded in the riverine forest and in the grassland, as well as in the jungle immediately around the camp. From the Tented Camp, I birded in several different areas along the branch of the Karnali as well as in the jungle at the Chisipani bridge, just outside of the preserve.
In the riverine forest I got an excellent view of Crested Serpent Eagle, Red Jungle-fowl, Jungle Owlet, Indian Roller, Hoopoe, Grey and Pied Hornbill, and Small Minivet. In the grassland, I saw a collection of babbler, bulbul, bushchat, and shrike, as well as Blue-tailed Bee-eater and a Greater Raquet-tailed Drongo. Along a ditch that fronts a jungle edge just past the elephant camp at Karnali Lodge I had a wonderful morning of edge-watching. There were Chestnut-tailed Starling, Iora, White-eye, Tickell's Thrush, Orange-headed Thrush, Chestnut-shouldered Petronia, and flowerpecker. The most spectacular bird of the morning was a Golden-fronted Leafbird, which I got a good look at for the first time. I also got some good looks at Blossom-headed Parakeet, Indian Roller, and Indian Treepie just by the elephant camp.
Along the river near the tented camp, there were Common Merganser, Little and Great Cormorant, Black Ibis, various kingfisher and waders. On the banks, there are bulbul and an array of grassland species that I saw elsewhere. My most exciting sightings were a very good look at a female Purple Sunbird and a male and female pair of Crested Bunting. I greatly enjoyed watching a dozen or so Woolly-necked Stork and a large flock of Great Cormorant splashing about the river one evening about three miles downstream from the camp. They were, of course, just out of range of a good photograph.
My morning at Chisipani bridge (in the jungle on the east side of the bridge and north side of the road) was something of a disappointment. There had reportedly been some flowering trees that attracted many parakeets and other birds a week or so before, but the flowers were gone, and so were most of the birds. I nonetheless saw a couple of new species there (a spectacular Green-billed Malkoha and a Crimson Sunbird) in the course of a rather quiet morning. I understand that this can be a great spot, so I must have just been unlucky or had bad timing.
I took a boat ride on the Geruna branch of the Karnali to return from the tented camp to the lodge. It was really a lovely and relaxing ride, and I saw much interesting bird life, although few new species. Most memorable were a pair of Jungle Crow mating and a seemingly unskillful Osprey fishing. The male crow landed on a branch next to the female, hopped up to her and handed ("beaked"?) her something, then fluttered up and mated with her. After the deed was done, he hopped off a few paces and they took stock of one another. River and Black-bellied Tern, kingfisher, Small Pratincole, various heron, darter, large and small cormorant, Ruddy Shelduck, and parakeets overhead were all featured. We also seemed to be following a troop of otter down the river, and had the pleasure of watching them swim, emerge onto the bank, and swim again several times. Crocodile, gharial, rhesus macaque, and langur monkey werealso in evidence.
My species count for Bardia was a rather disappointing 85 species. I attribute this at least partly to my own fatigue and partly to less skillful and interested assistance from my guides. I'm not sure whether there are actually fewer species to be seen there than at Chitwan.
KT indicates species seen at Koshi Tappu
RC indicates species seen at Royal Chitwan
RB indicates species seen at Royal Bardia
P/G indicates species seen at Pulchowki/Godawari
Species names and order follow A Guide to the Birds of Indian, Pakistan, Nepal, bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Grimmett, Richard, Carol Inskipp and Tim Inskipp. Princeton University Press. 1999.
Black Francolin Francolinus francolinus RC RB Grey Francolin Francolinus pondicerianus RC Swamp Francolin Francolinus gularis KT Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus RC RB Indian Peafowl Pavo cristatus RC RB Bar-Headed Goose Anser indicus KT Lesser Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna javacica KT Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea KT RC RB Gadwall Anas strepera KT Falcated Duck Anas falcata KT Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope KT Mallard Anas platyrhynchos KT Common Teal Anas crecca KT Garganey Anas querquedula KT Northern Pintail Anas acuta KT Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata KT Red-Crested Pochard Rhodonessa rufina KT Ferruginous Pochard Aythya nyroca KT Common Merganser Mergus merganser RB Grey-Capped Pygmy Dendrocopos canicapillus RC Woodpecker Fulvous-Breasted Dendrocopos macei RC Woodpecker Grey-Headed Picus canus Woodpecker Himalayan Flameback Dinopium shorii RB Black-Rumped Donopium behghalense KT RB Flameback Greater Flameback Chrysocolaptes lucidus RC Lineated Barbet Megalaima lineata RC RB Blue-Throated Barbet Megalaima asiatica KT Indian Grey Hornbill Ocyceros birostris RC RB Oriental Pied Anthracoceros albirostris RB Hornbill Great Hornbill Buceros bicornis RC Common Hoopoe Upupa epops KT RB Indian Roller Coracias benghalensis KT RC RB Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis KT RC RB Stork-Billed Halcyon coromanda KT Kingfisher White-Throated Halcyon smyrnensis KT RC RB P/G Kingfisher Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis KT RC RB Green Bee-Eater Nyctoyornis athertoni KT RC RB Blue-Tailed Bee-Eater Merops philippinus RB Chestnut-Headed Merops leschenaulti RC RB Bee-Eater Common Hawk Cuckoo Hierococcyx varius KT RC Plaintive Cuckoo Cacomantis merulinus KT Green-Billed Malkoha Phaenicophaeus tristis RB Greater Coucal Centropus sinensis KT RC RB Lesser Coucal Centropus bengalensis RC Alexandrine Parakeet Psittacula eupatria RC RB Rose-Ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri RC RB Blossom-Headed Psittacula roseata RC RB Parakeet Crested Treeswift Hemiprocne coronata RC Asian Barred Owlet Glaucicium cuculoides RB Jungle Owlet Glaucidium radiatum KT RC RB Spotted Owlet Athene brama KT Rock Pigeon Columba livia Oriental Turtle Dove Streptopelia orientalis RC P/G Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis KT RC RB Eurasian Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto KT RC RB Emerald Dove Chalcophaps indica RC RB Yellow-Footed Green Treron phoenicoptera RC Pigeon Orange-Breasted Treron pompadora KT Green Pigeon Brown Crake Amaurornis akool RC White-Breasted Amaurornis phoenicurus KT Waterhen Ruddy-Breasted Crake Porzana fuscu RC Purple Swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio KT Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus KT Common Coot Fulica atra KT Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago KT Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata KT Common Greenshank Tringa nebularia RC Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus KT RC Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola KT Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos RC RB Temminck's Stint Calidris temminckii KT RC Bronze-Winged Jacana Metopidius indicus KT Great Thick-Knee Esacus recurvirostris RB Small Pratincole Glareola lactea KT RB Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius KT RC River Lapwing Vanellus duvaucelii RC RB Red-Wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus KT RC RB Pallas's Gull Larus ichthyaetus KT Brown-Headed Gull Larus brunnicephalus KT River Tern Sterna aurantia KT RB Black-Bellied Tern Sterna acuticauda KT RB Osprey Pandion haliaetus KT RB Black-Shouldered Kite Elanus caeruleus KT Black(-eared) Kite Milvus (migrans) lineatus White-Rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis KT Long-Billed Vulture Gyps indicus KT RB Himalayan Griffon Gyps himalayensis Cinerous Vulture Aegypius monachus RB Eurasian Griffon Gyps fulvus KT Crested Serpent Eagle Spilornis cheela KT RC RB Eurasian Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosis KT Pied Harrier Circus melanoleucos KT Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus KT Shikra Accipiter badius KT RB Eurasian Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus RB Oriental Honey-Buzzard Pernis ptilorhyncus RC White-Eyed Buzzard Butastur teesa KT Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina RC Chageable Hawk Eagle Spizaetus cirrhatus RB Common Kestrel Falxo tinnunculua KT RC Red-Necked Falcon Falco chicquera KT Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus KT RB Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis KT Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus KT Darter Anhinga melanogaster KT RB Little Cormorant Phalacrocorax niger KT RB Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo KT RC RB Little Egret Egretta garzetta KT RC Great Egret Casmerodius albus KT RC RB Intermediate Egret Mesophoyx intermedia KT RC RB Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis KT P/G Indian Pond Heron Ardeola grayii KT RC RB Gray Heron Ardea cinerea KT Purple Heron Ardea purpurea KT Little Heron Butorides striatus KT RC Black-Crowned Night Nycticorax nycticorax KT Heron Cinnamon Bittern Ixobrychus cinnamomeus KT Black-Headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus KT Black Ibis Pseudibis papillosa KT RB Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia KT Asian Openbill Anastomus oscitans KT Woolly-Necked Stork Ciconia episcopus RC RB Black-Necked Stork Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus KT Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus KT RC Golden-Fronted Chloropsis aurifrons RC RB Leafbird Brown Shrike Lanius cristatus KT Long-Tailed Shrike Lanius schach KT RC RB Red-Billed Blue Urocissa erythrorhyncha RC P/G Magpie Rufous Treepie Dendrocitta vagabunda KT RC RB House Crow Corvus splendens KT P/G Large-Billed Crow Corvus macrorhynchos KT RC RB P/G Ashy Woodswallow Artamus fuscus RC Black-Hooded Oriole Oriolus xanthormus KT RC RB Rosy Minivet Pericrocotus roseus Small Minivet Pericrocotus cinnamomeus RC RB Scarlet Minivet Pericrocotus flammeus RC P/G Bar-Winged Hemipus picatus RB Flycatcher-Shrike White-Throated Fantail Rhipidura albicollis RC Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus KT RC Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus KT P/G White-Bellied Drongo Dicrurus caerulescens RB Spangled Drongo Dicrurus hottentottus RC Greater Raquet-Tailed Dicrurus paradiseus RB Drongo Common Iora Aegithina tiphia RC RB Blue Rock Thrush Monticola solitarius KT Orange-Headed Thrush Zoothera citrina RB Scaly Thrush Zoothera dauma RC Tickell's Thrush Turdus unicolor RC RB Dark-Throated Thrush Turdus ruficollis KT Red-Throated Ficedula parva RB Flycatcher Verditer Flycatcher Eumyias thalassina KT Grey-Headed Canary Culicicapa ceylonensis P/G Flycatcher Siberian Rubythroat Luscinia calliope RC Bluethroat Luscinian svecica KT Oriental Magpie Robin Copsychus saularis KT White-Rumped Shama Copsychus malabaricus RB Black Redstart Phoenicurus ochruros KT RC Common Stonechat Saxicola torquata KT RC White-Tailed Saxicola leucura RB Stonechat Pied Bushchat Saxicola caprata RC RB Chestnut-Tailed Sturnus malabaricus KT RC RB Starling Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris KT Asian Pied Starling Sturnus contra KT Common Myna Acridotheres tristis KT RB Bank Myna Acridtheres ginginianus Jungle Myna Acridotheres fuscus RC Hill Myna Gracula religiosa RC Chestnut-Bellied Sitta castnea RC P/G Nuthatch Velvet-Fronted Sitta frontalis RC Nuthatch Great Tit Parus major RC Yellow-Cheeked Tit Parus spilonotus P/G Sand Martin Riparia riparia RC Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica KT Red-Whiskered Bulbul Pycnonotus jocosus KT RC RB Himalayan Bulbul Pycnonotus leucogenys RC Red-Vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer KT RC RB P/G Black Bulbul Hypsipetes leucocephalus RB Grey-Crowned Prinia Prinia cinereocapilla RC Grey-Breasted Prinia Prinia hodgesonii RC Yellow-Bellied Prinia Prinia flaviventris RB Plain Prinia Prinia inornata RC Ashy Prinia Prinia socialis RC Zitting Cisticola Cisticola jundicis RC Oriental White-Eye Zosterops palpebrosus RB P/G Paddyfield Warbler Acrocephalus agricola KT Striated Grassbird Megalurus palustris KT Common Tailorbird Orthotomus stutorius KT RB Smoky Warbler Phylloscopus fuligiventer KT Tickell's Leaf Phylloscopus affinis KT Warbler Chestnut-Capped Timalia pileata RC RB Babbler Yellow-Eyed Babbler Chrysomma sinense RC Striated Babbler Turdoides earlei KT RC Jungle Babbler Turdoides striatus KT RC RB Rufous Sibia Heterophasia capistrata P/G Ashy-Crowned Sparrow Eremopterix grisea KT Lark Thick-Billed Dicaeum agile RB Flowerpecker Pale-Billed Dicaeum erythrorynchos RC Flowerpecker Purple Sunbird Nectarinia asiatica KT RC RB Crimson Sunbird Aethopyga siparaja RB House Sparrow Passer domesticus KT Chestnut-Shouldered Petronis xanthocollis RB Petronia White Wagtail Motacilla alba KT RC RB White-Browed Wagtail Motacilla maderaspatensis KT RC RB Citrine Wagtail Motacilla citreola RC Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava RC Grey Wagtail Motacilla cinerea KT RC RB Paddyfield Pipit Anthus rufulus KT RC Olive-Backed Pipit Anthus hodgsoni KT RB Rosy Pipit Anthus roseatus KT RC Yellow-Breasted Emberiza aureola RC Bunting Crested Bunting Melophus lathami RB
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